|Crew||3 to 6|
|Power at m||4*4000hp|
|Weights and loads|
|Wing Load (kg/m2)||3.44|
|Power load (kg/hp)||453|
|Cabin size LxWxH||13.5x3.5x2.6m3|
|2*23mm NR-23 in tail turret|
|(64k) Soviet An-12 from US Navy Photos, found at Roy Cochrun's ever changing Page;||Photo (41k) of Bulgarian An-12 by George Pantalos at AVION FOTO;|
The An-12 was developed from the An-8 parallel with the An-10 as a logistics aircraft. There was an idea keep the civil An-10 as a reserve for military: if necessary civil aircraft could be converted into military transport just by 'snapping on' different tail section. It is believed that An-10 and An-12 were assembled on the same production lines. Major difference is that An-12 rear fuselage is upswept and has large rear-loading doors, which open upwards and inward for air drops. For on-ground loading and unloading detachable ramp can be used. To provide area for the rear door, ventral fins of the An-10 were replaced by large forward extension of the tail fin.
Originally designed as a military transport, An-12 was fitted with defensive gunner position in the extreme tail. In the civil version armament was removed and the gunner's position blanked out. Crew of military An-12 includes 2 pilots, flight engineer, navigator, radio operator and rear gunner. Cabin for 14 passengers is added between the flight deck and cargo hold. The prototype and first 100 series An-12 had cargo hold pressurized. Starting from the 3rd batch, only flying deck and 14-seat compartment are pressurized, while the cargo hold is equipped with oxygen masks for paratroopers. This seriously restricts usefulness of the An-12 as paratroop carrier.
At the same time, strengthening of the fuselage structure allowed to increase payload from 12,000kg (prototype and early series) to 16,000kg and even 20,000kg (for compact cargo). Successful experiments were carried out with T-54 medium combat tank (35,000kg).
To handle heavy loads An-12 has built-in 2300kg capable gantry.
First flight took place on December 30 (March???), 1957
First export An-12 were delivered to India in 1961.
Victor Krasilnikov (pilot) and Vadim Choroshkov (copilot) set several records in March 1991, pushing their An-12 to 584km/h speed:
An-12 was built in Irkutsk (155 aircraft in 1958 ... 1963), Voronezh (258 aircraft in 1961... 1965, and Tashkent (830 aircraft in 1961... 1972). Many sources mention Kiev, but this seems to be an error. Total 1400 (900?) wee built, with approximately 600 serving with Military Transport Aviation.
An-12B - civil variant with gun position replaced by a fairing. It flew first time in 1961. Broad-chord Vee-bottomed skis (equipped with breaks and heating) were tested on An-12PL (Polyarnyj-Lyzhnyj, Polar-Ski) in 1966... 1967. Those skis became a standard for all Arctic and Antarctic An-12s.
Several variants of ECM/EW variants were seen around. They differ by number an location of antenna fairings and blade-aerials, varying from 'carrot-type' fairings on the wing tips and tailfin to large ogival compartment proturbing from the (former) tail turret. An-12 was seen over Baltic Sea fitted (for Anti-Submarine role) with nose and tail sensors arrays similar to those on Be-12. One of most radical modification received NATO designation 'Cub-C' features number of additional air scoops and heat exchanger outlets. Internal electronic equipment is palletized, and may be used in number of configurations. There have been suggestions that these 'stand-off' jamming platforms had a primary role of neutralizing NATO air defence and surface-to-air missile radars.
The 'Cub-D' is a second ECM platform, with a different equipment fit and characterized by huge external pods on the lower 'corners' of the forward fuselage and on each side of the base of the tailfin.
One An-12 was converted into flying command center. Some sources suggest that it was used during the Indo-Pakistan war, but details of its appearance are unavailable. One Egyptian 'Cub' flew with its port inner engine replaced by a Helwan E-300 turbojet, developed for a stillborn indigenous fighter.
An-12 was used by Angola, Afghanistan, Bulgaria, CIS, Czech Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iraq, Jordan, Malajzia, People's Republic of China (Y-12), Poland, Slovakia, South Yemen, Sri Lanka, Syria (Y-12), Yugoslavia. Now operation field of An-12 shifts from military to cargo operations (due to competition from newer planes like Il-76). For example, Polish military An-12 have been retired and India put its An-12 fleet on sale.
China builds An-12 variant with reversible engines (without license) as Yunshuji 8 (Transport aircraft number 8) variants since 1974 (first prototype flown on December 24). Variants include initial production Y-8, helicopter carrier Y-8A, civilian passenger/freighter Y-8B, (suspended) project Y-8C with fully-pressurized fuselage, drone carrier Y-8E (two drones can be carried on trapezes under the wings). Dedicated military export version Y-8D is believed to be converted into bomber by Sri Lanka. Y-8F is a uniquely Chinese aircraft, a dedicated livestock carrier with cages for 350 goats or sheep. Number of other civil and military Y-8s are under development (tanker, AEW, ...).
An-12s participated in number of both military conflicts and humanitarian operations.
||24k and 27k "Moscow Airways" An-12 at Sheremeteyvo-I, photos by Paul Nann;||Small GIF of An-12|
|Predecessors||Transport Variants||ECM Variants||Special||Developments|
|An-12A (fuel 16600l)||An-12B (fuel 19500l)||An-12BK for unpaved runways||An-12BK-PPS (Cub-D)||An-12BP 'Tsyclon' meteorological platform||
|An-12P||An-12AP||An-12BP||An-12PP||An-12PS SAR aircraft||Y-8 (China)|
|Modified January 25, 2000||Back to|