Technical data
Type I-14, ANT-31
Function Fighter prototype
Year 1933
Crew 1
Engines 1*580hp Bristol-Mercury VS-2
Length -
Wingspan 11.2m
Wing area 16.9m2
Loaded weight 1455kg
Wing Load (kg/m2) 86.7
Power load (kg/hp) 2.50
Speed at 0m 316km/h
Speed at 3000m 384km/h
Turn time 16.5sec
Landing Speed 110km/h
Landing Roll 260m
Takeoff Roll 120m
Ceiling 9400m
5000m 8.2min
Guns 1*7.62mm PV-1
2*37mm APK-37
2*7.62mm PV-1
2*g20mm ShVAK
Bombs 4 racks D-1

ANT-31, I-14, P.O.Sukhoj ( A.N.Tupolev bureau)

The first I-14 (b/w 48k) "History of aircraft construction in the USSR", Vol.1 p.490

First in the USSR all-metal low-wing monoplane with retractable landing gear. Other novelties included enclosed cockpit, breaks on main landing gear and smooth skin (instead of traditional corrugated). Project and construction were carried out by P.O.Sukhoj brigade at the KOSOS under the general supervision by A.N.Tupolev. Calculations were performed at TsAGI and presented in March 1923 to Aviation Industry Administration.

It was a time of extensive reorganizations in the Soviet aviation industry, and projects were moving from one organization to another, supervisors and subordinates swapped their offices. At the moment the I-14 story unfolded, S.V.Ilyushin was a head of the TsKB. P.O.Sukhoj - head of brigade 3, working on the I-14 monoplane fighter. N.N.Polikarpov... just rehabilitated from 'The Enemy Of People' by designing the I-5 biplane fighter.

In May 1932 S.V.Ilyushin made N.N.Polikarpov a deputy of P.O.Sukhoj. S.V.Ilyushin suggested more conservative 'backup' sesquiplane I-14B (with retractable gear) and I-14A (with fixed landing gear). N.N.Polikarpov accepted responsibility for the second one, which gradually evolved into the I-15 design.

Mock-ups of the I-14 (P.O.Sukhoj) and I-14A (N.N.Polikarpov) were presented in November 1932. On December 8 both projects were approved, I-14 as a high speed interceptor and I-15 as a highly maneuverable dog-fighter.

First experimental aircraft was ready in May 1933, powered with 580hp Bristol-Mercury VS-2 high altitude engine. Standard NACA cowling and wooden propeller were used. Aircraft skin was mixed - smooth on fuselage and fin, it was corrugated on wings and tailplane. Gear retraction was performed by steel wire. All system were installed, but aircraft was tested on fixed ski undercarriage.

Cockpit canopy was not sliding, instead its upper part served as a hatch opening backwards. Few variants of armament were considered, all included cannons of different available types. Final configuration was adopted only in January 1935.

Test flights (K.A.Popov on controls) revealed good performance, aircraft was very sensitive to controls. The only shortcoming was 1.5-2 turns delay while getting out of spin.

Decision was made to build I-14 in series with several changes as the I-14bis.


  • "History of aircraft construction in the USSR", Vol.1 p.489-490;

  • Links:
  • I-14, ANT-31

  • Modified January 27, 1998
    and Sergey Andreev;
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