Technical data
Type K-12, VS-2, 'Zhar-ptitsa'
Function Bomber
Year 1936
Crew 3
Engines 2*480hp M-22
Length 10.3m
Height ?m
Wingspan 20.9m
Wing area 72.7m2
Empty weight 3070kg
Loaded weight 4200kg
Wing Load (kg/m2) 57.8
Power load (kg/hp) 4.38
Speed at 0m 211km/h
Speed at 3000m 218km/h
Landing Roll 700m
Takeoff Roll 700m
Range km
Ceiling 7170m
1000m ?min
Fuel 500kg
Guns 2*?
Bombs 500kg

K-12 (VS-2) by K.A.Kalinin

12k b/w K-12 from 'Aviation from A to Z'

Experimental tailless bomber with two M-22 engines, yet another step on K.A.Kalinin's way towards his dream - rocket-powered supersonic flying wing aircraft. Light bomber carried crew of three. Construction - wielded steel tube frame with fabric cover. Each wing was a single piece construction, fuselage was assembled from three sections. Center sections of full-span slatted ailerons served as an elevon.

Aircraft could carry 500kg bombload inside, defenses were provided by two turrets (navigator/bombardier and tail gunner).

Prior to aircraft assembly 1/2 scale glider was built, and flown almost 100 times, proving the reliability of the airdynamic scheme.

45k drawing from "History of aircraft construction in the USSR", Vol.1 p.520

At Fall 1936 P.M.Stefanovskij took the K-12 into the air. End-plates were found inefficient at low speeds, minor stability problems were encountered. But the designer's goal was reached: he proved that tailless aircraft may serve as a multi-role front-line aircraft: light bomber (including chemical weapons), artillery spotter, photo-reconnaissater, transport-paramedic. After minor factory refinements K-12 was put in production.

Confidence in the K-12 was so high, that the experimental aircraft was included in Tushino parade fly-past on August 18, 1937. Painted in impressive red-yellow-orange feather-pattern, it was presented under nickname 'Zhar-ptitsa' (Fire-bird).

Ten K-12 were built, production was cancelled when K.A.Kalinin fall victim of Stalin's purges.

None None

  • "History of aircraft construction in the USSR", Vol.1 p.520-521;
  • Links
  • K-12, Kalinin
  • K-12 (Slovak)
  • K-12
  • K.A.Kalinin aircraft at Aviation from A to Z

  • Created January 25, 1996
    Modified August 24, 1999
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