General Information
Type KASKR-1
Function Experimental Autoguro
Year 1929
Crew 1?
Type M-2
Power 120hp
Length 8.8m
Wing Span ?m
Rotor Diameter 12m
Rotation speed 115rpm
Weights and loads
Empty 750kg
Loaded 950kg
Rotor Disk Load 8.4
Power load (kg/hp) 8.65
at 0m 90km/h
Practical n/a
Flight Endurance 1.5h
Ceiling 15...25m
Fuel ?kg

KASKR-1 'Krasnyj Engineer' by N.I.Kamov and N.K.Skrzhinskij

58k b/w KASKR-1 "Krasnyj Enginer" (Red Engineer) from "History of aircraft construction in the USSR", Vol.2 p.421

Inspired by Cierva C-8 success, engineers N.I.Kamov, N.K.Skrzhinskij (and M.L.Mil as a student) decided to built autogiro of their own. Their design was not a straight copy of Cierva's aircraft, but a conversion of the U-1 trainer into autogiro. In 1928 they managed to catch some interest from GVF (V.A.Zarzaza) and Osoaviakhim (Ya.I.Lukanidi) officials.

Project was approved on February 8, 1929 by Technical Section of The Central Consul of the Osoaviakhim (chairman - B.N.Yuriev, inventor of the main-and-tail rotor scheme with collective and differential pitch). People Commissar of Aviation Industry P.I.Baranov 's order provided designers with the U-1 airplane and necessary financing. Group got a workshop at 'Aviarabotnik' factory.

Upper wing was replaced by 4-blade rotor, mounted on a pyramid-type pylon. Blades had horizontal and vertical bearing. To suppress vibrations, blades were linked by a wire with spring insets (notice the loops on a picture) and balancing weights. While in rest, rotor was 'hanging' on rubber cords, attached to the upwards extended axis. Landing gear of the U-1 reused with substantially increased base. V-struts were attached to ease the increased stress on the lower wing (and compensate for upper wing removal).

Trials of the first autogiro in the USSR/Russia were plaqued with all sorts of failures and troubles. During first engine run rotor started to accelerate (as intended), but as some speed blade trajectory suddenly changed - and tailfin was chopped away. Rotor also suffered some damage. After this experience, all following Soviet autogiros featured low but long tailfins.

When KASKR-1 was repaired and taxi trials began (September 1?), light autogiro suffered from the rotor reaction forces. Tendency to turn over the port side was compensated by 8kg weight under the starboard wing. It took time for the team to learn how to compensate the asymmetric drag of the rotor.

After some failures (and repairs), came time to try to takeoff. Three flights were performed on 15 to 20m altitude. On October 26 (25...27?) KASKR-1 was badly damaged during noseover. It was rebuilt (with more powerful engine) and flown, but under different designation (KASKR-2).

Cierva C-8

  • "History of aircraft construction in the USSR", Vol.2 p.421
  • "Russian Civil and Military aircraft 1884~1969" by Heinz J.Nowarra and G.R.Duval, p.84;
  • Year 1929 of the Aircraft Chronology

  • Created May 3, 2000
    by Alexandre Savine
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