|Function||Strategic intercontinental bomber|
|Engines||4*3800/4300hp Dobrynin VD-4K|
|Loaded weight (normal)||76000kg|
|Loaded weight (maximum)||107000kg|
|Wing Load (kg/m2)||278 to 391|
|Power load (kg/hp)||4.4 to 6.22|
|Speed at 0m||459km/h|
|Speed at 10000m||638km/h|
|Landing Roll||1500 (500?)m|
|Takeoff Roll||1640 (810?)m|
|Range (max load)||8850km|
|Range (5000kg bombs)||12000km|
|Fuel+Oil||up to 48600kg|
|Guns||10*23mm NR-23 4500rounds|
Scaled-up Tu-80 with intercontinental range. It had to be powered by ASh-2 - the most powerful piston engines built in the USSR. This engine was not ready in time, and the backup VD-4K was installed. Aircraft was ready in 1950, and took off for the maiden flight on January 9, 1951 (crew commander A.D.Perelet). Trials program took a long time to fulfill, but no serious complications were encountered.
Most troubling system was new panoramic radar station 'Rubidij-M' (sub-variant 'Rubidij-M-85'). But during trials it was brought almost to perfection and under designation 'Rubidij-MM' served with number of aircraft (Tu-16, Tu-95, Tu-104, Tu-114, M-4).
To provide required range, Tu-85 had a new high aspect ratio (11.4) wing. Thick wing skin (10mm in the roots) allowed to save much weight on wing structure. Wing was much lighter than on Tu-4 and Tu-80. Fuselage, tailplane, avionics, defence vere similar to those of the predecessors. Aircraft had electric de-icing system installed on wing and tail leading edges, engine cowling and cockpits glazing. Propeller blades had liquid de-icing system.
Tu-85/1 (first prototype) could accommodate bombs up to 9000kg each (high explosive FAB-9000). For special long range missions crew could be increased to 16. During trials aircraft radio-electronic equipment was gradually upgraded to accommodate the most recent system. 59 flights were performed (142h16min in the air).
It was also decided to reduce bombload to 12000kg, because two 6000kg nuclear bombs were far more 'effective' than conventional 9000kg FAB-9000.
'85/2' systems turned to be much more reliable than those of '85/1'. It fulfilled test program in 25 flights (55h14min in the air). On July 8, 1951 Tu-85 participated in Tushino parade, escorted by MiG-15s. Would-be 'Flagman' of Soviet airforce was piloted by A.D.Perelet, the chief commander of the Moscow Military District aviation V.J.Stalin (son of J.Stalin) was aboard.
Tu-85 performance was very good for 1949- 1951, and production started (?). But at the time new jet engines entered the arena, and speed of 660km/h became insufficient for bombers. Straight wing had to give way to swept one.
Tu-85 became an ultimate development of straight-wing heavy bomber with piston engines. Both built aircraft were used as a test-beds until 1958, when airframe and engine resources were exhausted.
|32k 3-drawing from "History of aircraft construction in the USSR", Vol.2 p.374|