By Mr. Rick Slobodian C.E.T.
Member: S.A.E. engineering society for advanced mobility of Automotive, Aerospace & Space
A.I.P., A.S.E.T., I.F.P.O., S.T.L.E.
Vernon BC, Canada
contact e-mail:sandy_tato1962@hotmail.com

Ukraine Achievements and Firsts



AEROSPACE

Antonov Aircraft

Antonov design bureau (Kiev, Ukraine) have designed aircraft from 1947 till present, over 22,000 Antonov aircraft have been manufactured in former USSR, CIS, and Ukraine.

All Antonov aircraft have high mounted wings and engines, which puts all the strength in the roof, the body and cargo compartment hang off the roof, which puts the structural members in tension rather than compression as in American designs.

Engines are slung under the high mounted wing, which enables all Antonov aircraft to use unprepared runways, since the engines do not ingest dirt & debris.

Antonov An-225 : Heaviest plane or object ever to leave the surface of the earth and return, Antonov 225, loaded weight 650 tons or 13,000,000 lbs Largest internal cargo compartment 4.4 x 6.4 x 43 meters capable of carrying 80 Lada type automobiles, or 2 locomotive engines, cargo lift 275 tons. Capable of injecting satellites of up to 17 tons into orbit. Largest external cargo carrying capacity of 10 meters in diameter x 70 meters long, ie complete one piece chemical rectors, fractioning towers for refineries, or complete fuselage of airliners. Capable of carrying and launching the proposed British space shuttle directly into orbit. Capable of using dirt, snow and unprepared runways.

The An-225 Mryia heavy lifter, with high mounted wings and engines, makes it well suited to carrying large external loads on its roof, carrying a shuttle, launching a shuttle, injecting satellites, due to it's split rudder design.

The An-2 which was built in 1947 was certified for use in the west in 1997, the An-225 was not certified in the west, only for airshows. In 2001 a company in the southern US had a large chemical reactor measuring 12m dia x 75m long weighing 195 tons. It would have taken 2 weeks to disassemble, 20 flat bed trucks 1 week to ship, then 4 weeks to re-assemble the reactor, in northern Alberta. Antonov heard of this and said give us UDS $xxx,xxx they would show up, load up, and deliver in 1 week, hence the reactor could be operational in 2 weeks or less.

However the An-225 was not certified airworthy for outside of CIS/USSR/Ukraine, so Antonov told the customer to lobby and try to push through the certification, there was one back door which would give speed the process. Have an airshow demonstrating the external load carrying capability of the An-225. An air show was arranged, the reactor was loaded up, behind the scenes cash changed hands, the An-225 took off, delivered to load to another airshow in Alberta, then went home to Ukraine.

It worked, but heads rolled, but many diplomats, and officials in Washington and ICAO etc. were so impressed they granted complete certifications within 1 month.

Ever wonder why you hardly ever see the American shuttle on the back of the 747? That is because they almost lost a shuttle. But you will never hear about this on CNN. In order for the 747 to carry the shuttle, the 747 must be heavily modified to carry it. Next the shuttle on the roof affects the rudder response by taking airflow away from it.

The 747 was on its way back from Edward AFB to Cape Canaveral FL, the 747 was on approach, but needed to turn, because of a change of wind, they tried to turn, but rudder did not respond normally, this was caught at the last minute, the 747 was going out to sea with the shuttle on its back and not much fuel, (if it couldn't turn where are they supposed to go? Africa, or land in the ocean!

It could not turn as predicted, so a sharp pilot put it in a banked full power dive to force an change of airflow and speed over the tail, they did a sharp turn, and brought it back and landed it narrowly ending up out at sea.

Another back door, the ZMKB Progress engines certification process is very slow, so someone thought, the D-18T engine is suitable for electrical co-generation, but an engine for co-generation does not need to be certified, airworthy, but when many engines are used in co-gen plants, it will prove to the west their durability and fuel economy, turning peoples heads, speeding the certification process for certification for aircraft use.


Antonov An-70

Widebody STOL heavylifter
Fastest propeller plane in the world
Cargo capacity 47-70 tons
Loaded weight 120-140 tons
Top speed 800-900 km/h, only 100km slower than a jet
Most number of propeller blades of any plane, 64 blades composed of 4-14000 Hp engines, 2- 8 bladed propellers, counter-rotating
Burns 25% less fuel than a jet, 115 grams per ton per kilometre
30% quieter than a jet
takes off in 800 meters, lands in 600 meters

The American Mustang fighter top speed 475 mph @ 3000 Hp. In the 70's, the engines were balanced, blueprinted, and fueled on nitro methane, and nitrous oxide, using multiple spark ignition and thin synthetic oil, the engine Hp was upped to aprx 6000 Hp, however the top speed of the plane only increased 75-100 mph. Why? Because as the tip of the prop rotation approaches the speed of sound it bends and deforms, and becomes nothing more than a high power egg beater.

So Antonov built tapered blades, with a pitch which varies from the base of the prop to the tip, so that momentum and air pressure, causes the blade to become straight with a constant pitch from base to tip, when at high rotational speed. Next the blades are slightly c shaped curved slightly into the direction of rotation, so that when the rotational tip speed approaches the speed of sound the prop becomes straight, and can provide thrust, to propel the plane very close to the speed of sound without compromising, it STOL and high thrust at low speeds

Sometimes the best way to solve a problem is to think backwards, and think Low-Tech-Low Budget.



ARCHEOLOGICAL

Archaeological digs in Ivano Frankivske region Western Ukraine show evidence of human inhabitation, bone fragments, tools, cave paintings from 700,000 years ago


BREWING

Oldest continuously operating brewery in the world, Koloc brewery Lviv Western Ukraine est 1715, still using original open wooden fermentation vessels


DISASTERS

Chernobyl 1986 Over 800,000 people worked on the cleanup More people died as the result of the cleanup than as of the accident More energy has been consumed as a result of the cleanup than all of the power it produced from 1977-1997 and the construction from 1970-1977 combined


ENGINEERING

Tallest free-standing, unguided all metal structure in the world at 385 meters or 1265 feet, Kiev Ukraine, built 1968-1973


ENVIRONMENTAL

Number of workers involved in Chernobyl cleanup from 1986-1998 = 800,000 workers


HOLOCAUST

Most number of people killed in one year 5,500,000 by starvation by Stalin in 1933


RADIO

7 out of 11 of the worlds only ever built and still operating 1,000,000 watt short wave radio transmitters. Highest gain short-wave antenna 34 dB or amplification factor 2500 X Highest power signal ever injected into space, 10.5 Billion watts, which resulted in magnetic storms as well as a hole blasted into the ionosphere. Also the transmission deflected and split incoming weather fronts into two pieces and caused storms and flooding over Germany

Most number of radio transmitters ever combined into one antenna, 70, Lviv city radio jamming site 1952-1989