Technical data
Type UT-2 UT-2M UT-2MV UT-2 1944
Function Trainer Light Bomber Proto- type
Year 1938 1941 1942? 1943
Crew 2
Engine M-11 M-11 M-11D M-11?
Power (hp) 100 100 115 100?
Size
Length (m) 7.0
Height (m) ?
Wingspan (m) 10.2
Wing area (m2) 17.2
Weights (kg)
Empty 616 ? 633
Loaded 856 938 1150 905
Loads
Wing Load (kg/m2) 50 55 67 53
Power load (kg/hp) 8.6 9.4 10 ?
Speed (km/h)
at 0m 205 205 177> ?
Landing 90 95> ? ?
Roll (m, sec)
Landing 235, 16 200, 15 ? ?
Takeoff 200, 13 175, 12.5 ? ?
Maneuverability
Turn time 14sec
Range (km)
Normal 500 1130 ? ?
Flight Endurance
Normal 2.5h 7h ?h ?h
Ceiling (m)
Max. 3500 3100 3350 ?
Climb (min)
1000m 4.8 5.8 8 ?
3000m 21.6 31 ? ?
Payload
Fuel+Oil (kg) 64 146 ? ?
Armament
Guns none ?
Bombs none 200(+) kg

UT-2, UT-2M, UT-2MV, UT-2 standard 1944 by A.S.Yakovlev

28k b/w UT-2's in formation 'Notes of an aircraft designer' by A.Yakovlev

After successful prototype trials, mass production of UT-2 started in November 1937 on two factories. Technological simplicity gave the trainer production quick start, and it was eventually expanded to five factories, totaling 7243.

When first batches of UT-2 arrived to the airfields of training units, dangerous flat spin behaviour was noticed. Aircraft easily entered spin, and was too slow getting out. Extensive studies in Yakovlev KB (test-pilot V.L.Rastorguev) allowed to solve problem by minimal changes (controls adjustment plus tailplane installation angle).

Modified UT-2 entered production in 1941 as UT-2M. It utilized higher quality materials and differed by increased wing anhedral and sweep, revised shape of the tail surfaces, decreased ailerons area and other minor details. UT-2M had very good handling, never entered the flat spin. In case of steep spin it was enough to keep controls in neutral position.

In Summer 1941 UT-2 replaced N.N.Polikarpov's U-2 biplane as a primary trainer. Production and development of the type continued until 1944. Even in war time production rate was 3...4 planes/day.

Some batches had 115hp M-11D engine. Those aircraft had increased ceiling 4700m instead 3500. Two airframes were fitted with MV-6 engine (aircraft 'N°23', 'N°24'), but this change did not enter series production.

During the War some UT-2's were armed and used as light bombers (like the U-2). Those variants (UT-2MV among them) carried 200kg (or more) of bombs. In 'field' workshops some UT-2 were armed with one or two ShKAS machineguns, RS-82 rockets were fitted. None of those armed version was built in series.

48k b/w 'Standard 1944', as seen at "History of aircraft construction in the USSR", Vol.2 p.88
and "Russian aircraft since 1940" by Jean Alexander, p449

Since 1942 a 'divergent' design started taking shape. It had a green-house glazed canopy, later received fairings covering engine cylinders, new undercarriage, tailwheel instead of tailskid, landing flaps... It was finished and flown in 1943, getting designation 'UT-2 standard 1944' (sometimes mistaken as UT-2MV). It was an obvious transition to the post-war line of Yakovlev's trainers and aerobatic machines. Second suggested role of this aircraft was a liaison, in this configuration it had increased fuel capacity and takeoff weight of 991kg.

This aircraft did not enter mass production because Yak-18 incorporated much more advanced features (some tested and refined during 'standard 1944' construction).


PrototypesDevelopments

Ya-20/UT-2 prototypes

Yak-5

Yak-18
ReferencesLinks
  • "History of aircraft construction in the USSR", Vol.2 p.87...89;
  • "Russian Civil and Military aircraft 1884~1969", p.131...134, 193;
  • UT-2 at Virtual Aircraft Museum
  • Yakovlev Museum
  • Monino Museum
  • Yakovlev aircraft
  • AIR-20, Yakovlev
  • UT-2, Yakovlev
  • Ya-20, Yakovlev
  • Created January 25, 1996
    Modified October 18, 1999
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